Benavides y Pilar Perez
(Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Spain). Inauguraciones en exposiciones
de arte: Un ritual contemporaneo. (Panel 5)
un paseo por el ambito del arte en la actualidad desde el fenomeno
de las inauguraciones de exposicidn. Analizamos, en diferentes tipos
de espacios expositivos, el ritual de la inauguracidn. El punto
de vista es el de la estetica y la antropologia visual, a partir
de una decodificacion de las imdgenes rituales. Observamos los diferentes
participantes en las inauguraciones: espectadores, artista, galerista,
criticos de arte, familiares y amigos, periodistas; los distintos
tipos de espacio de exposicion; la decoracian del escenario festivo;
Ia presencia de la comida y bebida de celebracion; el tiempo en
el que ocurre. El recorrido lo presentamos con una serie de imagenes
recogidas a troves de un trabajo de campo realizado a lo largo de
cinco meses en el presente ono. Observamos la presencia de estereotipos
culturales, items de diferencia social, clase, estatus y.cdmo se
va reelaborando la construccion de la figura del artista.
(University of California, USA). Spirituality, Space, and Ceremony:
Alcoholics Anonymous and Popular Religion in Mexico City. (Panel
Since its inception
in 1935, Alcoholics Anonymous--the original, paradigmatic twelve-step
program--has acquired an enormous international following. AA is
not only spiritual in ideology and practice; the organization is
also an historical outgrowth of a particular religious tradition,
Protestantism. It is for this reason that observers long thought
that AA could never become a substantial presence in Latin America
and other predominantly Catholic countries. Experience. has proven
this prediction wrong. In Mexico City alone there are now more than
1500 Alcoholics Anonymous groups. Thousands of other groups can
be found in cities and towns across the entire Mexican Republic.
Focusing on ritual symbolism in a working class, male AA group,
this paper seeks ,to explain the success of Alcoholics Anonymous
in Mexico City. Fieldwork observations demonstrate that the AA meeting,
which constitutes the core of the program, may be interpreted as
a sacred rite.
(Colegio de la Frontera Norte, Mexico). La fiesta de la boda en
el noroeste de Mexico: La transformacion de una tradicion. (Panel
En el noreste
de Mexico, la fiesta de la boda es un suceso ligado atiri a to religioso
donde la comunidad familiar o vecinal se da cite en uno de los pocos
espacios que las transformaciones sociales han dejado sobrevivir.
be esta manera, mi trabajo de investigacion da cuenta de la relevancia
de este festejo pars percibir los cambios sociales y la relacion
boda-comunidad en la region norestense de Mexico; to cual realizare
a troves del andlisis a troves de tres niveles o ejes: a) religioso;
b) social; y c) festivo o It dico. Empleando la entrevista a profundidad,
asi come la observacion participante y la fotografia, ademos de
la inmersion total o autobiografia, Ilego a la idea de que en las
bodas se pone de manifiesto el rigor de la estructura familiar asi
come el sentimiento ltdico-festivo de los grupos sociales del dmbito
rural y urbano del noreste mexicano, edemas de constituir esta fiesta,
come ya lo mencione, un espacio sobreviviente a la transformacion
social de nuestras tradiciones.
(Oberlin College, USA). Parading Race in the Buenos Aires Carnival.
Just as blacks
were "disappearing" from the Buenos Aires scene and immigrants
were flooding into Argentina at the end of the 19th century, carnival
comparsas (musical and dance groupings) of elite, white, rich boys
began parading in black-face and performing tangos. My presentation
examines the transition of musical and dance traditions as performed
by blacks, by whites in black-face, and finally by whites, and discusses
the importance of the carnival arena for this rehearsal of culture
across color lines.
(University of Toronto, Canada). Sephardic Music in Imagined Jewish
Festivals in Spain. (Panel 7)
Over the past
several years, the "Road to Sefarad"(Camino de Sefarad)
has led to the development of festivals presented as survivals of
medieval Jewish culture in Spain. This paper will examine the use
of Sephardic and other music in these festivals and its role in
the creation of a neo-Jewish identity for both the people in the
village and the perception of them by visitors to the festivals.
The two main Spanish towns examined will be Ribadavia (Galicia)
and Hervas (Extremadura).
(George Mason University, USA). 'Transcending Ritual and Sacred
Space: Image and a Maya Demigod in Exhibit, Design, and Cyberspace.
a Maya syncretic deity in Guatemala, a convergence of pre-Columbian
Maya gods and imposed Catholic religion. Like other Maya gods, Maximon
grants favors but also honors 'evil' requests, such as curses upon
one's enemy, in exchange for offerings of cigars, liquor, and money.
In war-torn Guatemala, the Ladinos or Mestizos are the dominant
group in a country with the largest Indian population in Central
America. Maya Indians have an antithetical relationship with Ladinos:
while Indians are romanticized as commodified images for tourism
(the second largest industry in Guatemala) Ladinos treat them with
disdain and violence. In recent years, Maximon has moved from the
ritual and sacred space of altars in Maya villages to tourist advertisements
for Guatemala. Through visual culture, a text and language are formulated
that contribute to how knowledge is created internally and externally.
(Bowling Green State University, USA) Performances of Nationalism:
The Cold War and Mediated Constructions of Nationalism in the Boycotted
Olympics of the 1980's. (Panel 2)
will focus on the two boycotted Summer Olympic Games of the 1980s:
the American-boycotted 1980 Summer Games held in Moscow, and the
Soviet-boycotted 1984 Summer Games of Los Angeles. Both boycotts
were enacted for purely political reasons. The politics involved,
however, centered around the Cold War--America boycotted the 1980
games, for example, in protest of the Soviet Union's invasion of
Afganistan. Though the Olympics are designed as (ideally) a purely
athletic competition, the Cold War connotations of both games transformed
the respective festivals into grounds for the performance of national
identity. This paper will examine how major print journalism outposts
(such as Time, Newsweek, and selected major newspapers) represented
and performed constructions of nationality in their coverage of
the boycotted Olympics.
(The American Folklife Center, Washington, DC, USA). Keynote Address:
Facade Performances, Ecological Crisis, and the Body Politic.
(Instituto Tecnico Santa Catalina, Mexico). El deseo en accion:
Vestuario, ornamento y sociabilidad en la celebracion tradicional.
las ideas filosoficas de Gullies Deleuze y la sociologic cualitativa
intento profundizar en el deseo (trasladado de su orientacion puramente
filosofica a un piano mds social y prdctico como categoria explicativa)
como un dispositivo de produccion simbolica del participante adolescente
y joven de la celebracion tradicional con el cual pueblo sus ornamentos
y vestuarios. A un nivel colectivo se analiza la presencia del deseo
en el campo de la celebracion en diversas conductas de sociabilidad
que se alternan con la gramdtica o normatividad de la celebracion
en un juego entre el deseo como rompimiento y la norma como controladora
de la conducta. Asi mismo, el deseo se analiza tambien en la modificacidn
del vestuario utilizando una lectura semiotica de Ios diversos simbolos
urbanos y de carccter Iudico o estetico (no religiosos) operantes
sobre lo simbolico tradicional. El trabajo concluye con una interpretacion
del deseo en Ios tres niveles ya mencionados; el interno o del participante,
el social o colectivo, y finalmente en el material o del ornamento
y vestuario. Esta interpretacion da pie a su vez a una confrontacion
entre el deseo como articulador de las aspiraciones de un espacio
sagrado y estetico entre los jovenes confrontado con los espacios
urbanos de entretenimiento y sociabilidad.
(New York University, USA). Passover in Public. (Panel 1)
Since the heyday
of the Jewish labor movement in the 1920s and 1930s, a significant
feature of leftist Yiddish culture in North America was public and
private debate about appropriate celebrations of Jewish holidays.
For the Jewish socialists and communist sympathizers, the concept
of celebrating Passover in public became the nexus of a tradition
of public pageantry drawing on diverse sources: the sacred rites
of observant Jews, the Yiddishists' zeal to preserve jewish vernacular
culture, and the American folksong movement of the 1960s. Since
the 1940s, the Workmen's Circle has presented its Cultural Seder,
a dramatization of the biblical Passover story combining liturgical
dances, choral performances, and dramatic readings. The dialogue
among different musical elements, performance practices, and the
problematic notion of celebrating a Jewish holiday for an "audience"
makes the very notion of a cultural seder a rich and ambiguous one.
This presentation will be illustrated by color slides and audio
recordings from my fieldwork documentation of cultural seders.
(Bowling Green State University, USA). Dynamics of Meaning in an
American Apple Butter Festival. (Panel 3)
is a food traditional to northwest Ohio, an area on the edge of
the Midwestern plateau of the United States; settled predominantly
by German immigrants during the 19th century. Historically, apple
butter was a means of preserving the autumn apple harvest and was
usually eaten as a condiment spread on bread. It was generally made
outdoors, slowly cooked in large kettles over an open fire, a technique
also used for making ketchups from tomatoes and other vegetables.
Since 1978 it has been celebrated at the annual Grand Rapids Apple
Butter Festival, which now draws over 100,000 people. In this paper
I analyze the layers of meaning attached to apple butter by this
festival and explore the processes by which meanings have been intensified,
adapted, and invented. The multiplicity of layers helps to explain
the success of this food as an emblem of heritage, a festival theme,
and a symbol of contemporary identity.
(University of Pennsylvania, USA). Evolution of Spanish Royal Festivals
(1461-1700). (Panel 8)
explores the evolution of the forms in which the image of the king
is represented in theatrical festivals for the entertainment and
praise of the noble and royal courts in Spain from the fifteenth
century to the end of the reign of the last Hapsburg king, Charles
II. The representation of the King's image would be fashioned relative
to an assumed connection, or proximity, to the divinity. The evolution
of these forms of theatrical festivals are part of an extensive
program of divinization of the king by means of genealogical fabrication
that also includes the visual arts. It is the case of the progressive
formation of a theater state, in Geertz's terms, in which the court,
and the sovereign in the middle as the main character, present themselves
as the exemplary center of Christendom and empire.
Angel Montiel and Damian Muiioz Paris
(Documentary directors). El latido del Niger en Cuba. (Saturday,
June 10, 11:45 am)
hoy en din un regreso a las raices espirituales que la configuran
como una nacion profundamente mestiza. Los ritos y costumbres de
los antiguos esclavos africanos provenientes de la cuenca del rio
Niger, mezclados con el catolicismo de origen espafiol han producido
nuevas religiones: Ia Santeria y el Palo
Monte. La concepcion del mundo que promueven convierte la isla en
un lugar donde cualquier hecho de indole magica es aceptado con
normalidad. 5e trata de un universo donde los muertos y los santos
concursan en la vida de los hombres que a su vez, a traves de la
religion y sus oficiantes tratan de ganarse el favor de fuerzas
desconocidas y vencer los obstaculos y sus enemigos. Tal es el fervor
que se tiene de ritos y lenguas ancestrales que parece que Africa
permanezca viva en Cuba. Este documental se adentra en las estancias
mas profundas y secretas de las religiones donde los santos bajan
a posesionarse de los creyentes entre el extasis producido por los
tambores, donde los brujos extraen a los muertos de sus sepulturas
para esclavizarlos, donde la magia y la realidad se confunden. El
latido del Niger en Cuba supone un gran paso adelante en el esfuerzo
por aproximarnos a unas cultural desconocidas y envueltas en una
nebulosa de misterio. Guinn: Jose Angel Montiel; documentacion y
produccion: Natalia de Ancos; fotografia: Mario Sanchez Linaje;
montaje: Manuel Casted; Locucion: Juli Mira. Producida por Producciones
del Pez, Lolita Films y Natalia de Ancos en coproducciOn con NISA,
This film contains
brief scenes of animal sacrifice.
(University of Pennsylvania, USA). Join Proud Irishmen and Limerick
Men: Rituals of Ethnicity and Protest in the Burn(bash)ing of Angela's
It is a week
before Saint Patrick's day and about seventy people have gathered
at Dave Crowe's pub, Lily Flanagan's, in Rockville Centre, Long
Island. The event today was first advertised as a 'book burning'
of Frank McCourt's popular memoir of his childhood in Limerick Ireland,
Angela's Ashes. It consequently garnered some international news
attention and this attention encouraged a softening in the stance
of the event organizers, who in the course of four weeks advertised
the the gathering as a 'burning' then 'bashing' and, finally, 'protest'.
This essay looks at the idea of a burning as it was first proposed
by the community as an attack on a (mis)representation of their
identity with attention to the act as a ritual of destruction. And,
as the burning was softened to protest, the essay follows the subduing
of the community's discourse against the memoir as it was played
out in the media attention to the event, its advertisement and the
actual protest. Also of importance to this question is the role
of Lily Flanagan's as the site of the community's protest, reading
carefully the role of this pub and its mural of Limerick as surrogates
for the city itself.
(Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid, Spain
Gastronomic, turismo y revitalizacion de fiestas en Espana.
new forms of cooking and eating are intimately associated with traditional
celebrations. Spain is characterized by a great variety of public
rituals and festivities, where different forms of gathering are
performed and many kinds of special foods are consumed. After the
1970s a great movement of revitalization of ancient festivities
-and the re-creation and even invention of new ones- took place.
Very often the food and specifically certain meals were the main
points on which the rituals focused. In this paper I analyse the
economic and political factors that contributed to the identification
of many villages and towns with their food products, and the choice
of the public holiday as a privileged time for their consumption
by both the local people and the foreign tourists.
(York University, Canada). Reclaiming Spaces, Contested Places:
A Ukrainian Cultural Festival in Poland.
In June of 1997,
I conducted fieldwork at the Ukrainian Cultural Festival in Przemysl,
Poland. Ukrainians who gathered there, most of whom now live scattered
across Poland, were displaced from their homeland when they were
forcibly relocated after WW II. This festival, I argue, functions
as a site of intense negotiation; the sounds and songs people choose
to perform, debate about, listen to, dance to, and produce are important
means by which these Ukrainians create senses of local identity
in direct relation and in conflict with other Ukrainian communities
worldwide. Drawing on ethnographic data collected at the festival
(audio and videorecordings, photographs, interviews and fieldnotes),
I describe how these Ukrainians use the social and political spaces
and performance places of this politically controversial festival
to reclaim contested cultural and geographic territory.
(Universidad Catolica de Rio de Janeiro, Brasil). Youth's Day and
the Hour of Independence.
of the Brazilian Estado Novo, established by &etulio. Vargas
in November of 1937, were marked by a pedagogical. effort to reconstruct
the limits of the idea of the nation. Adopting a model of the authoritarian
state, the political groups that occupied the political power in
Brazil-mainly in the positions of Ministry of Education and Health
- forged a new calendar and a new civic culture that dramatized,
in the public sphere, the incorporation of several social sectors
within the new political project. This article examines two ceremonies
of that new calendar: Youth's Day and the Hour of Independence.
Both were observed during the Week of the Homeland in September,
and focused primarily on students enrolled in the public and private
education system. The articulation between the civic ceremonies
and the school practices was, therefore, one of the most important
strategies for the incorporation of the child into the symbolic
body of the nation.
(Universidad Autonoma). See "Lidia Benavides and Pilar Perez."
de los Reyes
(University of Pennsylvania) and Paul Rich (Universidad de (as Americas,
Mexico). The Ancient Arabic Order Nobles of the Mystic Shrine: Ritual
A men's secret
fraternal order, the Mystic Shrine was organized in New York City
in 1872, but claimed to be a continuation of an organization founed
in AD 656. Its rituals are based on Islamic motifs and some of its
costumes are taken from the Zouaves. Members must either have taken
all the degrees in the York or Scottish Rites of Masonry. The Shrine
is famous for its children's hospitals, the East-West Football Bowl
at Stanford each year, the red fez worn by members, its sponsorship
of circuses, and its highly colorful annual meetings. This paper
examines a common ingredient of secret societies in the nineteenth
century, the claim to be a much older movement with a legendary
past. Members had to deal with the problems presented by an actual
recent founding, which if acknowledged meant a loss of prestige
and mystique. How a more romantic and glamorous past was invented
and defended is an example of the invention of fable and myth.
(Universidad de las Americas, Mexico). See "Guillermo de los
Reyes and Paul Rich."
(Bowling Green State University, USA). The Mark of the Beast and
Other Ritual Spaces in Contemporary Spain.
At the beginning
of Spanish director Alex de la Iglesia s 1995 comedy, E/ dia de
/a best/a (The Day of the Beast), a gigantic cross collapses on
a Catholic priest crushing him just as he is about to begin an unsung
crusade against Satan himself on the fin de siec%streets of the
Spanish capitol of Madrid. The end of the film finds his companion,
still alive, in the company of a palm reading charlatan scaling
the heights of the most distinctive building of Madrid's postmodern
business district in search of the devil, who has made the tilting
twin-towered high rise his terrestrial cathedral. My paper will
compare such obvious ritual events as Seville's Holy Week and Toledo's
Corpus Christi with secular rituals such as bullfighting, arguing
for the key spatialization occurring through these events. I will
show how such contemporary activities as cruising the M-30 (Madrid
s beltway) or the Castellana (Madrid's equivalent of the Champs
Elysees), or even simply passing through the Puerto del Sol provides
ritual experience that offers to today's Spanish youth a meaningful
historical and cultural identity.
(Bowling Green State University, USA) Keynote Address: Reinventing
Ritual (as Public Display).
The end of
the twentieth century has seen the development of a great many public
symbolic events and forms, from the Million Mom March (for gun control)
in Washington, DC this past Mothers' Day to the commemoration of
holocaust victims by placing markers on railroad tracks in Germany.
At the same time, scholars from a great many disciplines, including
but not restricted to anthropology, folklore studies, history, and
performance studies, have produced important works in a field that
can be characterized as unified and which includes holidays, ritual,
festival, celebration, and public display events within its purview.
This interdisciplinarity reflects the overlapping and hybrid nature
of the events found in praxis and also of the porous nature of the
analytical categories. It is no accident that as people are creating
and adapting traditional forms to serve new occasions, situations,
and purposes, that the study of ritual itself has expanded.
(Norwich University, USA). What's for Lunch: Ritual and Ethnicity
at the Office Potluck.
examines food practices in the workplace. Major office celebrations
are mostly marked by food. These include Christmas and Thanksgiving
potlucks, and occasions to honor favorite employees who leave the
ranks to retire, transfer out of the area, or get a major promotion.
Sometimes other celebrations are marked by a specific ethnic food,
such as Chinese New Year, Black History Month, Cinco de Mayo and
St. Patrick's Day, but the office potluck is the most ecumenical.
It allows each employee to either display their ethnicity with a
dish, or neatly hides it behind an American food such as broccoli
salad, or a bucket of Kentucky Fried Chicken. In this paper I will
examine how foodways break down the small barriers that divide ethnic
(University of Pennsylvania, USA). On the Edge of the World: Revival/Re-Creation
of Community and Tradition at the Brimstone and Burin Folk Festivals
in Newfoundland, Canada.
During the past
two decades, folk festivals have developed into core tools for the
defining of various communities and regions of Newfoundland. They
have been adopted trough out the island as a way of attracting tourist
dollars, celebrating local talent, and teaching tradition. Some
of these festivals, such as the seventeen year old Burin Peninsu/a
Festiva/ of Folk Song and Dance, place a strong emphasis on "authenticity,"
on the need to protect cultural history form outside and contemporary
influences. Others, such as Fogo Island's sixteen year old Brimstone
Head Folk Festiva/, place a greater stress on community entertainment,
with a redefinition of authenticity to favor Newfoundland music
as series of living, reflexive genres. These differences in approach
have created very different festivals, with similar functions but
equally problematic contrasts. By . analyzing the functions and
debates of both these festivals, I will demonstrate the power of
folk festivals in the formation of and reflection on community and