Networking

Glossary of Networking Terms

 
Term
Definition
Category
802.11(a,b,g,x) "Wireless"
Group of IEEE standards that allows computers to connect to wireless networks. Users can connect to the Internet without using cables or additional phone lines. An example of this is Apple's wireless technology, Airport.
Networking Standards and Technologies
Access point
A single device that allows multiple devices to connect to the network via a wireless connection.
Networking Standards and Technologies
BandwidthThe speed of data or information that can flow through a path such as a communications network, a computer bus or a computer channel. Bandwidth is expressed in bits per second (bps), bytes per second (Bps), or cycles per second (Hz). The larger the bandwidth, the faster the data flow.
Networking
BICThe Bowling Green Information Center (BIC) is the name given to the box or faceplate that contains your voice or data jacks.
Networking
BroadbandThis is networking in which a single wire can carry multiple signals at once. Broadband offers high-speed transmission and often refers to Internet access using cable modems and DSL.
Networking Standards and Technologies
BroadcastSending the same message to all computers on a network at the same time. Broadcasting is a "one-to-many" transmission most often used to gather information about the network.
Networking Standards and Technologies
DHCPThe "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol", or the protocol that provides a way to allocate IP addresses on a network. The system administrator assigns a range of IP address to DHCP and each client computer has its TCP/IP software configured to request an IP address from the DHCP server.
Networking Standards and Technologies
DNSThe "Domain Name Service", or a data query service used on the Internet for translating hostname's into Internet addresses. DNS can be configured to use a sequence of name servers, based on the domains in the name being looked for, until a match if found.
Networking
EthernetThis is the most commonly used local area network (LAN) access method, which is defined by the IEEE as the 802.3 standard. A 10/100 Ethernet port comes standard on all Macs and most recent PCs for home use to connect to the Internet via DSL or cable modem.
Networking
GatewayThis is the first router a packet will be sent to when it travels between two networks.
Networking
GigabitThe collection of one billion bits, or specifically 1,073,741,824 bits. A Gigabit Ethernet network raises transmission speed to a theoretical 1 Gbps.
Networking Standards and Technologies
Host NameThe name assigned to a computer, allowing other computers to locate and connect to it. If a web site is powered by several hosts, they may be given different names.
Networking
HubA network device that divides one network connection into many network connections. The cost of adding this device is bandwidth is shared between all users on the hub and every system on the hub can see the data of every other system.
Networking
IP AddressA unique number which identifies a computer on the internet. It is a 32-bit number, usually written as four decimal numbers from 0 to 255 separated by periods.
Networking
MulticastTransmitting the same message to multiple recipients at the same time. Unlike broadcasting, multicasting sends messages to specific groups instead of sending it to everyone. It is a one-to-few-to-many transmission.
Networking
PacketA piece of data that has a series of headers and footers attached to tell the appropriate devices such information as its source, destination, and what kind of information is being carried.
Networking
Plug-InAn auxiliary program which works with a major software package to enhance its capability. Plug-ins are commonly used in editing programs such as Photoshop, Final Cut Pro, or Pro Tools to add a filter for some special effect.
Applications Standards and Technologies Networking
Roaming IPEnables a person to use a computer in different locations without knowing their IP address. The computers settings will automatically assigned whenever it is connected to an active Ethernet network.
Networking
RouterA device that can switch data between multiple networks.
Networking
Static IPThis is a number identity that is assigned to a computer by an Internet Service Provider (ISP) to be its permanent address on the Internet. It is used by computers to locate and talk to each other on the Internet.
Networking
StreamingThe delivery of video or audio data over a network in real time, as an indefinite stream of numbered packets instead of a single file download. Streaming is a continuous transmission of data, usually audio or video.
Networking Standards and Technologies
SubnetA sub division in a network to increase speed, group individuals that perform similar tasks, and to create a layer of security between departments and mission critical systems.
Networking
Subnet MaskA series of ones and zeros much like the IP address that tells your system and all attached systems what network your in and what systems are in the same network.
Networking
SwitchA network device that provides a secured and dedicated amount of bandwidth to each device connected to it.
Networking
TCP/IP"Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol", Actually two protocols, TCP is responsible for breaking a message into packets and verifying that these packets have arrived at their destination, while IP is used to actually send the message.
Networking
UnicastThis is a one-to-one form of transmission. If RTSP is provided, the user can move freely from point to point in a unicast movie. In unicast, even though multiple users might request the same data from the same server at the same time, duplicate data streams are transferred to each user.
Networking Standards and Technologies
UDP"Unconnected Datagram Protocol," A simplified version of TCP, which performs no error checking. It is most often used in "loss tolerant" communications, such as streaming video and audio, and chat.
Networking
VPN"Virtual Private Network" technology forms and encrypted tunnel between the client system and a device somewhere on the network. The data between these two systems would appear to be unreadable to anyone trying to view it.
Networking Standards and Technologies